From the beginning of recorded history, and for thousands upon thousands of years, cultures across the entire world all believed the Earth was flat. Their various cosmologies and cosmogonies differed in slight ways but their overall geographies and astronomies were incredibly consistent and in fact virtually identical. The Earth was a stationary plane void of any motion or curvature, flat across its entire expanse except of course for hills, mountains and valleys. The North Pole was the magnetic mono-pole center-point of the flat Earth with Polaris, the North Pole star situated directly above. Polaris was the only motionless star in the heavens with all the other constellations revolving perfect circles over the Earth every night. The stars were divided into two categories known as the fixed stars and the wandering stars. The fixed stars were so-called because they were observed then as we can observe today to stay fixed in their constellation patterns night after night, year after year, century after century, never changing their relative positions. The wandering stars, what are today referred to as “planets,” were so-called because they were observed then as we can observe today to wander the heavens taking their own unique spirograph-like patterns making both forward and retrograde motions over and around the Earth during their cycles.